Sabtu, 15 November 2008

Evaluation of Food and Culture Tourism in Door County

Food production and distribution have become increasingly industrialized, resulting in great geographical separation between production and markets. This industrialized food production model has drawn the attention of consumers that are questioning how and where their food is being produced. The industrialized food model has been called into question as food safety issues have arisen with spinach contaminated with E. coli and more recently tomatoes contaminated with salmonella. Further critics allege that the industrialized food production model contributes to global warming by increasing carbon emissions, and makes food less nutritious and tasty by breeding for durability for transport rather than quality. An alternative to the industrial model is the development of local food networks. A local food network is the economic and social infrastructure necessary to produce fresh foods in the same places where those foods are consumed. To understand the organization of the emerging local food network in Door County, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison surveyed both retail establishments and fresh food producers/processors. The attached reports shed light on where the local food networks are today, where the local food network is headed, and what opportunities lay ahead for local food production in Door County.

ASEAN Food composition tables (FCTs) 2000

Prapasri Puwastien, Barbara Burlingame, Monthip Raroengwichit, Pongtorn Singpuag
The ASEAN FCTs include food composition database of the common food items (fresh, cooked and processed) from 6 ASEAN countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. They were systematically compiled by the ASEANFOODS technical coordinators and compilers, together with the experts from INFOODS.

The ASEAN Food composition tables is published by the Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU). It contains data of 21 components of 1740 food items, divided into 17 food groups. Since the data are all actual analysed data, there are some missing nutrient data for some food items. We did not intend to fill them with any borrowed or estimated data in this first version.

Background on the development of ASEAN FCTs, systematic development and information to the users are provided in the front part of the book. Lists of food name index of each country in their local language, a list of scientific names and summary of the analytical methods used among laboratories in ASEAN are provided in the appendices.

ASEAN Food Composition Tables
ISBN 974-664-480-7, 185 pages
US$ 40; airmail postage included
Developing country price: US$ 20, airmail postage included

North Carolina Food Waste Task Force

More than fifty attended a seminar on Food Waste in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in December sponsored by NC DPPEA and the Carolina Compost Council. The goal of the seminar was to outline the need for increasing food waste diversion and organize a committee to explore options to make it happen. Ten speakers presented on such issues as food waste generation, EPA’s hierarchy, Orange Counties Food Waste Collection program, UNC Charlotte on-site composting and Food Banks.
This zero waste event was co-sponsored by Whole Foods of Chapel Hill that donated the lunch; BFS of Bend, OR donated the biodegradable utensils, plates and collection bags and Orange County that transported the waste to be composted.
The seminar was video taped by Davis Stillson of HDV Production that is producing a DVD of the event. The DVD (2) will be available to purchase for $30.00 (s/h included) thru the Carolina Compost Council (
Over 20 attendees expressed interest and signed up to be on a statewide task force. The next meeting of the NC Food Waste Task Force is scheduled for January 16 at the Inner Faith Food Shuttle facility in Raleigh. For more information about the task force please contact Brian Rosa at or visit web site.

Local Food Programme Outline

Local Food is a £50 million programme that will distribute grants to a variety of food-related projects to help make locally grown food accessible and affordable to local communities. Communities will benefit from improved health and well-being through exercise and better nutrition; strengthened local economies through the creation of social enterprises; and more sustainability through the better use of resources such as food redistribution and composting.

Local Food will run from Spring 2008 through to March 2015; with all projects having to be completed by March 2014.

Local Food has been developed by a consortium of organisations, and is managed on their behalf by the Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts (RSWT).

Local Food has five main themes under which a range of projects can be supported.

1. Enable communities to manage land sustainably for growing food locally

Projects that are encouraged to apply under this theme are:

• providing support to communities for set-up costs of food production projects (eg land management, planning, site layout and design expertise, mentoring and business support, closing the recycling loop)
• supporting the development of community land trusts
• advising groups on the development of appropriate models of land management (eg allotments, community gardens, city farms, school grounds schemes)
• enabling BME communities to develop projects around food growing which meet their social and cultural needs: this might include local sourcing of fruit and vegetables that are normally imported

2. Enable communities to build knowledge and understanding and to celebrate the cultural diversity of food

Projects that are encouraged to apply under this theme are:

• supporting promotional, awareness raising, and educational initiatives such as local events based on varied cultural festivals
• supporting projects that will grow exotic crops and foods from other regions of the world
• promoting education about how these foods are cooked and their role in cultural celebrations
• funding projects that will protect rare and endangered seeds
• widening interest through education about cultural food diversity to both communities and schools

3. Stimulate local economic activity and the development of community enterprises concerned with growing, processing and marketing of local food

Projects that are encouraged to apply under this theme are:

• supporting initiatives that enable communities to develop community supported agriculture, city farms and practical links with farms to raise consumer awareness around local food
• direct marketing enterprises, events and programmes aimed at building trust and collaboration
• funding new local food social enterprise models and initiatives and promoting new producer-consumer relationships (farmers’ markets, box schemes, re-distribution of food, composting)
• providing support to build infrastructure through websites, processing, food hubs and alternative distribution networks
• establishing Community Investment Programmes with private sector partners

4. Create opportunities for learning and the development of skills through voluntary training and job creation

Projects that are encouraged to apply under this theme are:

• providing support for apprenticeships and mentoring schemes, practical project placements and new enterprise development
• funding for training and accreditation and developing farm visits (both city and rural), trips and exchanges
• increasing volunteer opportunities through local food projects; new groups, clubs and societies
• supporting school projects linked with the National Curriculum to enable teachers, parents and volunteers from the local community to be trained in food growing techniques
• providing BME communities, where English might not be the first language, with opportunities to build confidence and improve food-related skills in a safe environment

5. Promote awareness and understanding of the links between food and healthy lifestyles

Projects that are encouraged to apply under this theme are:

• providing support for food-related educational programmes, events and activities that will promote awareness and aim to change attitudes and behaviour
• funding projects that provide information, resource packs, and other associated programme materials
• providing focused support for BME communities where there is proven evidence of higher incidences of food-related illnesses such as heart disease and diabetes

Please Note
The types of projects listed above are just examples of what might be funded through Local Food. This list is by no means exhaustive. You might have a very good idea that may be eligible that is not on the list. If you are unsure if your proposal is eligible then once you have received your First Stage Application form, you will be able to contact a member of the RSWT Grants Team; contact numbers will be on the First Stage Application Form. To find out when information will be available, please read the attached FAQs.

There are some projects that Local Food is unable to fund.
• School meals
• School and play ground with no food links
• Sport grounds projects

There are also some activities Local Food is unable to fund.
• Activities that take place outside England
• Projects intended primarily for private gain
• Grants that contribute directly to a company’s distributed profits
• Contributions to general appeals
• Staff time to develop and write applications
• Endowments and fund to build up a reserve or surplus for other purposes than project sustainability
• Retrospective funding: costs incurred and/or expenditure committed before we offer you a grant
• Existing loan repayments
• Activities which primarily promote religious or political beliefs
• Core costs for an existing project
• Funding shortfalls on existing projects
• Feasibility studies (this only applies to Main and Beacon projects)

All eligible Local Food projects will be assessed against a set of established criteria.
• The organisation is well managed and financially sound
• The project meets at least one of the five main outcomes
• The project addresses disadvantage
• The project demonstrates good and effective partnership working
• There is community involvement, consultation and benefit in all aspects of the project
• The project will be monitored and evaluated against the identified outputs and milestones
• The project displays a good level of social economic and environmental sustainability
• The project displays good budget management, value for money, and has realistic income projections

If you are intending to apply for a Beacon Grant, there will be additional criteria to meet.
• For multi-regional and national projects, the project must display, not only community consultation, but wider consultation and communication (e.g. with stakeholders)
• The project must display how it will impact on the areas it is targeting, and display substantial benefits through its intended activities
• The project must show how it will leave a lasting legacy on the sector, or display a comprehensive sustainability/exit strategy, on how it intends to continue.

Hopefully this, along with the attached FAQs, should provide you with enough information to start to think about your ideas for a potential Local Food bid.

"Food Safety in Natural Disasters"

When natural disasters strike, food safety is a crucial public health concern that is too often neglected. Under the extraordinary conditions that may occur during and after such disasters, the following issues require immediate attention:

• Preventive food safety measures
• Inspecting and salvaging food
• Provision for safe food and water
• Recognition and response to an outbreaks of foodborne disease
• Consumer education and information on food safety

Need for Food Safety Advice

During or following natural disasters, such as the recent earthquake and tsunami in South East Asia or cyclone and flood in New Orleans, food in affected areas may become contaminated with dangerous microbiological and chemical agents. Consequently, those populations are at risk for outbreaks of foodborne diseases, including hepatitis A, typhoid fever and diarrhoeal diseases, such as cholera and dysentery. In particular, floods are often followed by a general increase of diarrhoeal diseases but rarely by specific outbreaks .

Food safety risks are mainly linked to unsafe food storage, handling and preparation. In many cases cooking may be impossible during natural disasters due to the lack of facilities or fuel. Poor sanitation, including lack of safe water and toilet facilities, can compound the risks. As persons suffering from the direct effects of the disaster may already be at risk through malnutrition, exposure, shock and other traumas, it becomes essential that the food they consume is safe.

Authorities must maintain existing support for food safety and heighten their vigilance against new foodborne risks introduced by the disaster. Basic messages, such as those contained in the WHO Five Keys for Safer Food, should be reinforced to all food handlers, especially those involved in large scale food preparation.

WHO's Advice for Food Safety in Natural Disasters

In order to assist governments in their planning and response to natural disasters, the World Health Organization has developed the guide Ensuring Food Safety in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters. It offers specific advice to those involved in food storage, handling and preparation during disaster situations. The guide is modelled after the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food ( and is intended to:

1. Provide public health and other authorities with guidance on key food safety issues to be considered in such disaster situations;
2. Remind authorities of the need to restore and maintain basic support for food safety infrastructure;
3. Heighten their vigilance against the introduction of new foodborne risks;
4. Serve as a quick reference to those involved in providing emergency food aid, such as managers of refugee camps and food distribution centres; and
5. Provide guidance for the development of simple food safety messages to those involved in food handling and preparation in disaster areas, including ordinary consumers.

While the guide has been primarily developed to be used following natural disasters, most of its food hygiene advice may also be applicable to other emergencies such as those caused by armed conflicts and serious social disruptions.

Overview of the Guide

1. Preventive food safety measures in the aftermath of natural disasters
During and following natural disasters, particularly floods and tsunamis, food may become contaminated by surface water. At times, surface water may itself have been contaminated by pathogenic bacteria from sewage, wastewaters and dead animals or humans. The need for preventive measures should be immediately investigated, including:
• Water for drinking and food preparation should be treated as contaminated unless specifically confirmed as safe. Therefore, all water should be boiled or otherwise made safe before it is consumed or used as an ingredient in food.
• What agricultural production has been adversely affected and what areas exist where food can still be harvested or where food has been safety stored after harvesting.
• What agricultural produce may be contaminated with microorganisms (from raw sewage or decaying organisms) and potentially hazardous chemicals. Note that while it is sometimes possible to eliminate potentially hazardous microorganisms by thoroughly cooking or disinfecting the produce, such actions may not completely remove chemical hazards.
• If crop fields have been contaminated, an assessment should be carried out to establish measures to reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens and hazardous chemicals.

2. Inspecting and salvaging food
• If feasible, all food stocks should be inspected and assessed for their safety. Ideally such food should be labelled as such or otherwise segregated from contaminated or uninspected food stocks.
• When salvaged foods are reconditioned to be fit for consumption, they should be labelled accordingly.
• In areas that have been flooded, whatever intact foods remain should be moved to a dry place, preferably away from the walls and off the floor.
• Any food stocks found to be unfit for human consumption must be disposed of properly
• If necessary, consumers should be clearly informed of measures they need to take to render food safe.
• Discard canned foods with broken seams, serious dents, or leaks; and jars with cracks.
• Undamaged canned goods and commercial glass jars of food are likely to be safe. However, if possible containers should be sanitized before opening them for use. Foods that are exposed to chemicals should be thrown away. Chemicals generally cannot be washed off the food.
• Inspect refrigerators and freezers to determine if they have been affected by the lack of electricity or flood waters. Where food has remained cold and otherwise unaffected, the food is probably safe to consume.
• Where power is not available, try to use refrigerated food before it is held in the danger zone (5 - 60°C) for more than two hours, especially meat, fish, poultry and milk.
• Some foods normally stored in the refrigerator can be kept in the danger zone for longer than others, but food should definitely be discarded if it shows signs of spoilage (off odours, colours or textures).
• Check all food for physical hazards, such as glass, wood splinters and stones that may have been introduced.
• Mouldy food should not be consumed as it may contain toxic substances. The likelihood of mould growth on stored dried vegetables, fruits and cereals is greater in a humid environment and where food has become wet.

3. Provision of Food after a Natural Disaster
• After a natural disaster as soon as families have re-established their capacity to cook, any food they may be given is usually distributed in dry form for them to prepare and consume in their homes or temporary shelters. People may not always be familiar with all kinds of dry foods. When given, they should be shown how to prepare dry foods especially to use safe water if the food is not cooked.
• In addition to safe water for food preparation, safe water for washing hands and utensils will be needed.
• A shortage of fuel for cooking may also be a major constraint and is essential for ensuring adequate cooking and reheating of cooked food.
• In some cases, as an alternative to mass feeding, it may be possible to help households by setting up temporary shared neighbourhood kitchens where people can prepare food for their own families or in groups.
• Where basic infrastructure is lacking, shelf-stable rations that do not need cooking or hydration should be provided.

4. Identification and response to outbreaks of foodborne disease
It is vital to detect foodborne disease outbreaks as early as possible in order to limit their spread. Indications of a foodborne disease outbreak that should trigger further investigation include:
• Increase in persons visiting clinics with symptoms of diseases, especially diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal symptoms;
• Field reports on cases of foodborne disease symptoms from health workers;
• Reports from pharmacists of unusual demand for anti-diarrhoeal agents, anti-emetics or other medication for gastrointestinal problems, e.g. antibiotics;
• Upsurge in inexplicable customer complaints to a food caterer, supplier, food industry;
• Reports of unusual death;
• Unusual absenteeism from schools and the workplace, especially in large industries.

Investigation of and response to a suspected foodborne disease outbreak:
• Timely treatment of the ill;
• Removal (recall) of the contaminated food from circulation;
• Rapid identification of the causative agent and the suspected foods by patient interviews and by appropriate diagnostic laboratory testing;
• Epidemiological investigation to identify the causative agent, the responsible food and the manner of contamination;
• Timely provision of information to the public on food-related outbreaks and the actions they should take to minimize those risks.

5. Consumer education and information
• All advice should be tailored to the local situation and existing conditions. In many cases, consumers will be preparing food under conditions that are more primitive than normal due to lack of fuel, water supply and electricity.
• Consumers should be advised to take special care regarding food safety when procuring food and water. For example, where warehouses, chemical plants, and other sources of chemicals are present, an assessment of potential chemical contamination should be made. People should be advised to avoid such foods unless decontamination procedures are available.
• General information and advice should also be provided to the population on the risks of foodborne diseases to remind the population that dangerous communicable disease outbreaks in disaster areas have the potential to claim as many lives as the disaster itself and that safe food and water are essential to prevent such outbreaks.

Regulation of Food Produced Using Gene Technology

Food produced using gene technology is regulated by Standard 1.5.2 - Food Produced Using Gene Technology, of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and is defined by the Standard as:
Food which has been derived or developed from an organism which has been modified by gene technology [1].
2.1.1 Safety Assessment of Food Produced Using Gene Technology

Standard 1.5.2 prohibits the sale and use of a food produced using gene technology unless it is included in the Table to clause 2 of the Standard and complies with any special conditions specified by that Table. The Standard requires Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) to assess the safety for human consumption of each food or class of food prior to its inclusion in the Table. The safety assessment must be performed according to the Authority' s approved safety assessment criteria [2].

Currently 20 GM foods are approved for human consumption under the Standard [1].
2.1.2 Labelling of GM Food

All foods produced using gene technology must be safety assessed by FSANZ prior to release onto the market for human consumption. Hence, the labelling of GM food is not a safety issue but rather is one of consumer information and enables consumers to make a choice regarding selecting the food they wish or do not wish to consume [3].

In December 2001 the labelling provisions of Standard 1.5.2 came into force which require GM food to be labelled with the statement ‘genetically modified’ [1].

GM food is defined as:
Food that is, or contains as an ingredient, including a processing aid, a food produced using gene technology which:
• contains novel DNA and/or novel protein; or
• has altered characteristics [1].

GM food does not include:
• highly refined food, other than that with altered characteristics, where the effect of the refining process is to remove novel DNA and/or novel protein;
• a processing aid or food additive, except where novel DNA and/or novel protein from the processing aid or food additive remains present in the food to which it has been added;
• flavours present in the food in a concentration no more than 1g/kg; or
• a food, ingredient, or processing aid in which genetically modified food is unintentionally present in a quantity of no more than 10g/kg per ingredient [1] [18].

Standard 1.5.2 is silent with regard to negative label claims regarding the GM status of a food or ingredient such as 'GM free', ‘GMO free’ or ‘non-GM’. The Standard does not prescribe statements to be used for negative label claims nor does it prohibit the use of negative claims. Negative claims are made by food businesses on a voluntary basis. However such claims are subject to the fair trading requirements of the Australian Trade Practices Act 1974. Food businesses must ensure any claims made are not false, misleading or deceptive.

2.2 Australian Pilot Survey for GM Food Labelling

Following commencement of the GM food labelling requirements of Standard 1.5.2 of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (in December 2001), a small preliminary examination in the form of an Australian pilot survey of corn and soy derived food products was undertaken to ascertain:
• how food businesses are adapting to the need to comply with the GM food labelling provisions of Standard 1.5.2 and the need to determine the GM status of ingredients used in their products; and
• the usefulness of document surveys to regulatory authorities in determining compliance or non-compliance with the mandatory GM food labelling requirements, as an alternative to undertaking Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing.



 The physical organization of the distribution area.
- Are the refugees waiting for their food ration in an orderly manner outside the distribution area?
- Is it easy to follow visually the distribution “line” (from the person who checks the refugee identity/ration card, to the person who scoops the food, to the person who controls the exit of the refugee)?
- Is the food properly piled? Is any bag of food left open and without proper custody? Is there food spilt on the ground of the distribution area?
- Is the distribution area protected from the rain?
- Is the area defined (by a rope, wooden fence, concrete walls, etc.)?
- Is the distribution area kept “clean”?

 The distribution process.
- Is the ration card (issued after UNHCR/Government registration) used to check the identity of the refugee and its serial number verified on the beneficiary list?
- Is the ration card punched once the head of family enters the distribution area?
- Is there a clear division of responsibilities between the staff who calls and checks the names of the refugees, the person who scoops, the person who monitors those previous activities and the person who ensures the orderly processing of refugees?
- If refugees are involved, is there a NGO staff designated to control their work?

 Beneficiary lists and name verification.
- Does the NGO use computerized beneficiary lists?
- Does the list have a column for the name, the family size and their signature?
- Does the staff call out the names of the refugees from the beneficiary list by using a loudspeaker?
- Do they ask every head of family questions to confirm his/her identity or ask for his/her ID card/ration card?
- Does every beneficiary sign upon reception of their food ration?
- Are refugees who are not on the lists registered on the spot and distributed food? Or are they simply registered and have to wait for the next distribution?
- Have family sizes increased suddenly on the spot during distribution?

 The scooping activity.
- Are standard and precise scoops used? (verify the announced quantity of food scooped from each container.)
- Does the NGO use scoops in which the quantity to distribute is marked with a pen or has a visual estimation mark?
- Do scoops change from one distribution to another in spite of the food ration remaining the same? If this happens, does the NGO explain to the refugees the reason behind this and weigh the food in a new scoop in front of the refugees?
- Are the same scoops used for different food items?

 Equity of the distribution.
- Does everybody receive the same agreed upon food ration?
- Do the elderly, women and children receive their due ration?
- Is there any system in place to guarantee some special groups (e.g. handicapped people, the elderly, etc.) an easier access to their due ration?

 Information on the distribution.
- Are refugees (from the young man to the elderly woman) informed about the distribution day, the quantity due to each refugee and the quantity of food contained in the scoops?
- Are refugees informed of any change in the above?
- How is this information disseminated (verbally to all refugees, verbally through leaders, in writing through leaflets, by signboards with drawings or messages)?
- Is any special attention provided to refugees in special situations (e.g. minors coming to collect food, the elderly, handicapped, etc.)?

 Other issues:
- Did the distribution start on time?
- Were the trucks properly offloaded thus ensuring security for the food handled?
- In the event that our implementing partner sub-contracts another NGO for the actual food distribution, is at least one representative of our partner present during the entire distribution process? What kind of monitoring and control is he/she ensuring?

This may consist of:
 Following a refugee home (preferably chosen at random) who has just received their ration.
 Returning to the same village/camp where the food distribution took pace some days earlier and interview a family selected at random.
 Meeting a group of refugees (e.g. women, leaders, farmers, young people) after the distribution has already taken place.

In the first case, it will be important to:
- Check if the number of family members indicated on the ration card/NGO list is correct (either by checking the number of family members present or enquiring with neighbours).
- Observe the food stock of the household.
- When other food items other than those from the distribution are found, ask where they came from (they could be in compensation for work, from the market, from the kitchen garden, etc.).
- Ask about information they receive on the food distribution and their appreciation of the NGO work.
- Ask about the use of the food ration (e.g. is it for consumption, trade, as reimbursement of debts, etc.).

In the second case, you may as well ask the following:
- How does the household complement the food ration provided by the UN/NGO or by the Government? (e.g. do they buy it, work for it, trade, etc.)
- What are their usual sources of food? (e.g. the market, as compensation for work, the forest/free land, food distributions, donations from other refugees, donations from the local population, etc.)
- Is any food consumed now, which wasn't consumed before in the country of origin? (if yes, why wasn’t it and why it is now)
- How many meals per day does the family consume?
- What activities are carried out by the family members in their daily life?
- Are these activities regular or seasonal only?
- What is the daily income (or "in kind" benefit), if any, received for their activities?
- How many members of the family are involved in these activities?
- Do the children work as well? If yes, did they also work in the country of origin?
- What was the main activity of the head of household in the country of origin?
- Did the family find itself needing to sell personal belongings in order to purchase food and NFI? If yes, when did this last happen?

In the third case, the same questions mentioned above and plus some additional can be asked in order to obtain a more general idea of the refugee’s appreciation of the distribution system, the distributing agency, the ration provided, their coping mechanisms and their socio-economic situation.
There are several ways to gather this information, of which one is the so-called quick appraisal technique, which mainly uses oriented discussions with refugees in groups or on an individual basis.
Group discussions can be carried out with groups of refugees selected on the basis of sex, age, occupation or a combination.
In the case of a large refugee settlement, such an investigation should be selected on the basis of their profile.

The group discussions can refer to a more general checklist:
• Is information on the food distribution provided in a timely manner?
• Do the refugees appreciate the work of the NGO in charge of food distribution?
• How is the food ration is used (e.g. is it for consumption, trade, reimbursement of debts).
• How do the refugees complement the food ration provided by the UN/NGO or by the Government?
1. Buying food
2. Working for food
3. Trading food
• What is their usual source of food?
1. The market
2. As compensation for work
3. The forest/free land
4. Food distributions
5. Donations from other refugees
6. Donations from the local population
7. Other
• Is any food consumed now, which wasn't consumed before in the country of origin?
1. Food not consumed because it was considered "poor" food
2. Food not consumed because of traditional beliefs
3. Food not consumed because it was not part of their usual diet
4. Other
• How many meals per day do the refugees consume?
1. What % of the population has two and which has three meals a day?
• What activities are carried out by the refugees in their daily life?
1. Specify the kind of activity
2. Specify if the activity is of a continuous nature or seasonal
3. What is the daily income (or "in kind" benefit) received for their activities
4. How many members of the family are involved in these activities
5. Do the children work as well? If yes, were they used to working before in their country of origin
6. What is the estimated % of refugee having access to income generating activities
• What % of refugees have access to land for cultivation?
1. Can they "own" their own land
2. How many hectares, on average, are given per refugee family
3. What % of refugee work on the land of the local population compared to those working on land allocated to them
4. Do refugees have seeds and tools. If yes, how did they obtain them
• Did the refugees find themselves having to sell personal belongings in order to purchase food and NFI? If yes, when did this last happen?
• What's considered as “bad/difficult” times for the refugees?
• What's considered as "good" times?
• Who are the most vulnerable among the refugees? (see how refugees themselves define vulnerability)